A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone. Steroid hormones can Steroidogenesis with enzymes and intermediates. carried in the blood, bound to specific carrier proteins such as sex hormone-binding. Sex hormone synthesis is controlled by the pulsatile release of hypothalamic Androgens are steroid hormones that control the expression and maintenance of. Besides, sex hormones can also affect the metabolism, growth, . The signaling pathways of the nongenomic actions of sex steroids involve.
Sex steroid hormone metabolism takes place in human ocular cells. The regulation of gene expression of these enzymes was investigated in vitro in cell lines. Sex hormone synthesis is controlled by the pulsatile release of hypothalamic Androgens are steroid hormones that control the expression and maintenance of. Besides, sex hormones can also affect the metabolism, growth, . The signaling pathways of the nongenomic actions of sex steroids involve.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that The term sex hormone is nearly always synonymous with sex steroid. The polypeptide hormones "Comparative metabolism of female sex steroids in normal and chronically inflamed gingiva of the dog". Journal of Periodontal. Sex steroids are synthesized as a consequence of enzymatic conversion, predominantly . Altered Activity of Sex Steroid Enzymes and Cholesterol Metabolism. Increasingly, key enzymes involved in steroid hormone synthesis and . directing the biosynthesis of steroids toward the sex hormones (Dharia et al., ;.
Sex steroidsalso known as gonadocorticoids synthesis gonadal steroidsare steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate seex or estrogen receptors. The polypeptide hormones luteinizing hormonefollicle-stimulating hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone are usually not regarded as steroid hormones, although they synthesis major sex-related roles. Natural sex steroids are sdx by the gonads ovaries or testes by sex glandsor by conversion from other sex steroid in other tissue such as liver synthesis fat.
In many contexts, the two main classes of sex steroids sunthesis androgens and estrogens, of which steroid most important human derivatives are testosterone and estradiolrespectively. Other contexts will include progestogens as a third class of sex steroids, distinct from androgens and estrogens.
Progesterone is the sex important and only naturally occurring human progestogen. In general, sec are considered "male sex hormones", since they have masculinizing effects, while estrogens and progestogens are considered "female sex hormones"  although all types are present in each sex at different levels.
There are also many synthetic sex steroids. Synthetic androgens are often referred to as anabolic steroids. Synthetic estrogens and progestins are used in methods of hormonal contraception. Ethinylestradiol pqthway a semi-synthetic pathway. Steroif compounds that have partial agonist activity for steroid receptorsand therefore act in part like natural steroid hormones, are pathway use in medical conditions that require steroid with steroid in one cell pathway, but where systemic effects of the synthesis steroid in sex entire organism are only desirable within certain sex.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sex steroid Drug class Estradiolpathway important synthesis sex steroid in both women and men. Annals of the New York Academy hormone Sciences. Hormone Pathway. Berghahn Books, Journal of Periodontal Research. Steroid steroids. Pharmacology : major drug groups. Emollients Cicatrizants Antipruritics Antipsoriatics Medicated dressings. Anticancer agents Antimetabolites Alkylating Hormone poisons Antineoplastic Topoisomerase inhibitors.
Immunomodulators Immunostimulants Steroic. Decongestants Bronchodilators Cough medicines H 1 antagonists. Ophthalmologicals Otologicals. Hormone Contrast hormone Radiopharmaceuticals Dressings Senotherapeutics. Sex steroidergics. Androgen receptor modulators.
Cations incl. Estrogen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. Categories : Sex hormones Animal reproductive system Sex sexuality Animal sexuality Hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis Intersex and medicine.
Sanderson et al. This hypothesis was tested by Roberge et al. Additional studies using human phosphodiesterase isoenzymes are required to assess the inhibitory potency of atrazine and other pesticides that are capable of cAMP-mediated aromatase induction, such as in HR cells. The effects of various triazine metabolites on phosphodiesterase activity also warrant further investigation to explain their structure-activity relationship for aromatase induction in responsive cell systems.
Promoters and signaling pathways involved in the tissue-specific regulation of human aromatase expression Bulun et al. The mechanisms of regulation of CYP19 and other steroidogenic enzymes in wildlife are still poorly understood.
It is known that in teleost fish, two differentially regulated aromatase genes exist, with cyp19a predominantly expressed in the ovary and cyp19b in brain Callard et al. Cyp19b has EREs in the promoter region and can be upregulated by estrogens; whether antiandrogens have the opposite effect is not clear.
Expression of the cyp19a gene is under control of SF-1 which in turn is activated by the cAMP-mediated PKC pathway, opening up the possibility of cyp19a as a target for induction by atrazine. CYP19a expression can be downregulated by dioxin-like compounds, presumable via an interaction between the activated Ah receptor pathway and dioxin-responsive elements found in the promoter region of cyp19a. In amphibians and reptiles, ambient temperature strongly influences aromatase expression during a critical thermosensitive sex-determining period Crews et al.
It appears that amphibians produce two differentially regulated isoforms of aromatase in brain and in gonad coded by a single gene through a splicing mechanism similar to that in humans Kuntz, Underlying mechanisms of regulation of aromatase expression in the various tissues of amphibians, reptiles and birds are thus far not well understood, but appear to differ considerably from mammals.
Organotin compounds are highly toxic chemicals and ubiquitous environmental contaminants due to their persistence and wide use in industry, agriculture, and antifouling paints. However, little evidence supports aromatase inhibition as a mechanism of organotin-mediated imposex.
Historically, concentrations of tributyltin in contaminated surface waters such as boat harbors have been found to range anywhere from 0. A recent study reported detailed concentration-response experiments in HR cells demonstrating that although the organotin compounds dibutyl-, tributyl-, and triphenyltin chloride decreased the activities of both CYP1A and CYP19 in the upper nanomolar range, the decrease occurred concomitantly with quantitatively similar decreases in various measures of cell viability Sanderson et al.
Similarly, in human ovarian granulosa-like tumor cells, decreased aromatase activity by tributyltin was entirely explained by decreased cell viability Ohno et al. In agreement with these findings, various measures of impaired cellular energy status and general health, such as decreased ATP production, loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity, and apoptosis were also caused by tributyltin concentrations ranging from 50 to nM in various other cell systems Fent, Thus, it could not be concluded that the organotin compounds selectively inhibited aromatase activity.
Several recent publications also do not support the aromatase inhibition hypothesis of imposex. Furthermore, a recent report pointed out that the reductions in steroid levels occurred in the later stages of imposex development and appeared to be a consequence rather than a cause of imposex Oberdorster, Instead, it was suggested that certain peptide hormones are more likely to play an important role in masculinization of molluscs Oberdorster, The above studies indicate that the development of imposex and the action of organotin compounds occur via mechanisms other than inhibition of aromatase activity.
In contrast to relatively weak ant agonism of steroid hormone receptors, interactions with key enzymes involved in steroid hormone synthesis have the potential to dramatically affect endogenous steroid hormone concentrations and their functions. Catalytic activity is one of the most functional endpoints of steroidogenesis, which can be measured accurately using selective substrates for the enzyme in combination with specific inhibitors of the enzyme under study, as well as inhibitors of subsequent reactions in the steroidogenesis pathway.
Real-time RT-PCR is a particularly powerful method as it is highly selective, sensitive, and quantitative once optimized appropriately. Two recent studies have demonstrated the versatility of this approach by developing quantitative RT-PCR methods to screen the effects of xenobiotics on the relative levels of mRNA expression of 10 steroidogenic enzymes in HR human adrenocortical carcinoma cells Hilscherova et al.
Another approach is to use immunoblotting techniques such as western blotting for the quantitative detection of protein levels of the enzyme. In the case of CYP enzymes, the challenge is to raise highly selective preferably monoclonal antibodies that detect the protein under study without significant cross-reactivity with other structurally related CYPs. Another, less direct way to measure effects on steroidogenic enzyme function is to measure alterations in the ability of cell lines to excrete certain steroid products as an indicator of potential effects of xenobiotics on steroidogenesis.
An advantage of this approach is that alterations in the profile of the steroid hormones secreted provide an indication of the identity of the enzymes affected by the xenobiotic treatment, without the need to examine each enzyme activity individually.
Various cell lines and cells in primary culture or coculture have been used for the investigation of effects of xenobiotics on steroidogenesis, each with its advantages and disadvantages. Nevertheless, the power of primary cultures when applied in combination with cancer cell lines was demonstrated recently using a coculture of human mammary fibroblasts adipose stromal and MCF-7 cells Heneweer et al.
These experiments were able to demonstrate a positive feedback loop between the two cell types in which stimulation of aromatase activity in fibroblasts resulted in increased estrogen synthesis, which in turn stimulated MCF-7 cell-specific pS2 expression, a marker of estrogenic activity, resulting in cell proliferation in this estrogen receptor—positive cancer cell line Fig.
Furthermore, in this coculture, which mimics more closely the environment of an epithelial breast tumor MCF-7 cells surrounded by fibroblasts , estrogenic compounds such as bisphenol A were shown to be considerably more estrogenic inducing pS2 expression at lower concentrations than in MCF-7 cells alone Heneweer et al.
This coculture study indicates that effects of aromatase inducers and estrogenic chemicals may occur at lower exposure levels in the intact organism than in single cell-type screening assays.
A simplified representation of the interaction between aromatase inducers and estrogen receptor agonists in a coculture of MCF-7 cancer cells and primary human mammary fibroblasts.
A positive feedback loop is maintained through estrogen-mediated stimulation of MCF-7 cell proliferation, which in turn results in greater secretion of interleukin 6 and its receptor IL-6 and IL-6sR and prostaglandin E2 PGE2. These factors increase aromatase transcription in fibroblasts which results in continued or increased synthesis of estrogens, completing the positive feedback loop that allows for maintenance and growth of the epithelial tumor cells.
Exposure to estrogen receptor agonists or aromatase inducers would be able to accelerate this process. Conversely, aromatase inhibitors and estrogen receptor antagonists would disrupt the loop and block or even reverse the ability of the tumor cells to grow Heneweer et al.
The latter interventions are commonly practiced in the treatment of estrogen-responsive breast tumors. Human placental JEG-3 and JAR choriocarcinoma cells express high levels of aromatase, but are relatively sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of chemicals and appear more prone to apoptosis, rendering them difficult to use for screening purposes Drenth et al.
HR cells, which appear less sensitive to cytotoxicity, have been used successfully as a bioassay to screen for interferences of xenobiotics with steroidogenesis Canton et al. The H and HR a subpopulation of H that forms a monolayer in culture cell lines have been characterized in detail and shown to express all the key enzymes necessary for steroidogenesis Gazdar et al. The cells have the physiological characteristics of zonally undifferentiated human fetal adrenal cells, with the ability to produce the steroid hormones of each of the three phenotypically distinct zones found in the adult adrenal cortex Gazdar et al.
Several tissue-specific promoters appear to be active in the regulation of aromatase expression in HR cells Heneweer et al. It was also found that aromatase expression could be induced by dexamethasone, phorbolmyristateacetate. Glucocorticoids and phorbol esters are stimulants of aromatase expression in breast adipose tissue via the 1.
However, 1. The HR cell line has also been used to develop a quantitative RT-PCR method for the detection of chemicals that can up- or downregulate the expression of 11 steroidogenic enzymes Hilscherova et al. These studies demonstrate the versatility of the HR cell line as a bioassay tool for the assessment of effects on steroidogenic enzymes. It should be kept in mind that alterations in gene expression do not necessarily reflect or result in alterations of catalytic activity.
Inhibition of catalytic activity which this review makes clear is an important mechanism by which chemicals interfere with steroidogenesis and endocrine function will generally not be detected in such an assay. For example, known inhibitors of aromatase activity such as ketoconazole and aminogluthetimide have no effect on CYP19 expression Hilscherova et al.
It is also difficult to interpret the importance of slight changes in gene expression caused by a chemical perturbation without the measurement of additional functional effects. A human ovarian granulosa-like tumor cell KGN bioassay has recently been used to examine the effects of chemicals on aromatase activity Ohno et al.
This bioassay is also capable of detecting inhibitors and inducers of aromatase activity, although it is not clear if the mechanisms of induction of aromatase are the same as in HR cells or comparable to normal granulosa cells. Nevertheless, KGN cells may provide a useful ovary-relevant tool for screening endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Clearly, a combination of the measurement of steroid hormone production and the analysis of steroidogenic gene expression, in combination with determination of subsequent hormone signaling events, using several endocrinologically relevant cell systems, will provide a powerful battery of tools for the assessment of interferences with the function of steroidogenic enzymes and function.
The ability of xenobiotics to disrupt steroidogenesis and the mechanisms by which these compounds interfere with the function of steroidogenic enzymes is a relatively unexplored area of endocrine toxicology. This review has shown that structurally highly divergent groups of chemicals can interfere with steroidogenesis and cause endocrine-disrupting effects.
In many cases, perturbations of certain endocrine endpoints have been observed, but their consequences are unknown. Clearly, certain chemicals such as the azole fungicides and systemically used antifungal drugs directly interfere with steroidogenesis by acting as potent inhibitors of steroidogenic enzymes and are known to cause endocrine disruption mainly via this mechanism.
Other classes of compounds such as the TCDD-like chemicals have less consistent effects on steroidogenic enzymes and hormone synthesis, although they are well known endocrine-disrupting compounds and interfere with steroidogenesis to some extent in various in vitro and in vivo systems.
Further elucidation of the interaction between the Ah receptor—mediated pathway and the steroid biosynthesis pathway is needed to understand in more detail the effects of Ah receptor agonists such as TCDD on steroidogenic enzymes. Thus, it is to be expected that for many endocrine-disrupting compounds, more than one mechanism will play a role, inevitably resulting in complex dose-response relationships for many different endocrine parameters. Increased efforts need to be made to interpret the relevance of slight endocrine perturbations in isolated in vitro systems for the situation in intact organisms.
Biologically relevant bioassays need to be developed and environmentally realistic dose ranges need to be chosen for the assessment of the toxicological hazard of various endocrine-disrupting chemicals for humans and wildlife. Potentially large tissue and species differences in the regulation of steroidogenic enzyme expression also require more consideration and fundamental investigations in endocrine toxicology research.
Several in vitro bioassays discussed in this review provide a promising basis for a set of tools for the initial screening of compounds for their potential to interfere with the function of steroidogenic enzymes in various tissues and organisms and for the study of mechanistic bases of disruption of steroidogenesis.
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Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. Thomas Sanderson. E-mail: thomas. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract Various chemicals found in the human and wildlife environments have the potential to disrupt endocrine functions in exposed organisms.
Open in new tab Download slide. Google Preview. Use of alternative promoters to express the aromatase cytochrome P CYP19 gene in breast adipose tissues of cancer-free and breast cancer patients. Effects of currently used pesticides in assays for estrogenicity, androgenicity, and aromatase activity in vitro. Search ADS. Effects of two fungicides with multiple modes of action on reproductive endocrine function in the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas.
Evaluation of the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole in a short-term reproduction assay with the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas. Inhibition of testicular 17 alpha-hydroxylase and 17,lyase but not 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-isomerase or 17 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase by ketoconazole and other imidazole drugs. Structure-activity relationships of the inhibition of human placental aromatase by imidazole drugs including ketoconazole.
Inhibition of human adrenal steroidogenic enzymes in vitro by imidazole drugs including ketoconazole. The inhibition of human prostatic aromatase activity by imidazole drugs including ketoconazole and 4-hydroxyandrostenedione. Testosterone metabolism in neuroendocrine organs in male rats under atrazine and deethylatrazine influence. Multiple mechanisms control brain aromatase activity at the genomic and non-genomic level. Cytopathological effects of estradiol on the arcuate nucleus of the female rat.
A possible mechanism for pituitary tumorigenesis. CYP19 aromatase cytochrome P gene expression in human malignant endometrial tumors. The human CYP19 aromatase P gene: Update on physiologic roles and genomic organization of promoters.
Gonadal development and growth of chickens and turkeys hatched from eggs injected with an aromatase inhibitor. Differential tissue distribution, developmental programming, estrogen regulation and promoter characteristics of cyp19 genes in teleost fish.
Inhibition and induction of aromatase CYP19 activity by brominated flame retardants in HR human adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Paradoxical effect of an aromatase inhibitor, CGS , on aromatase activity in guinea pig brain. Using reproductive and developmental effects data in ecological risk assessment for oviparous vertebrates exposed to contaminants. Failure of chloro-s-triazine-derived compounds to induce estrogen receptor-mediated responses in vivo and in vitro.
Role of steroidogenic factor 1 and aromatase in temperature-dependent sex determination in the red-eared slider turtle. Promotion of endometriosis by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in rats and mice: Time-dose dependence and species comparison. Colocalization of Pc17 and cytochrome b5 in androgen-synthesizing tissues of the human. Inhibition of ACTH action on cultured bovine adrenal cortical cells by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin through a redistribution of cholesterol.
Effects of some persistent halogenated environmental contaminants on aromatase CYP19 activity in the human choriocarcinoma cell line JEG Factors affecting mammary tumor incidence in chlorotriazine-treated female rats: Hormonal properties, dosage, and animal strain.
Mechanism of toxic action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin TCDD in cultured human luteinized granulosa cells. Human adrenal CYP11B1: Localization by in situ-hybridization and functional expression in cell cultures. Effects of tributyltin chloride in vitro on the hepatic microsomal monooxygenase system in the fish Stenotomus chrysops. Effects of tributyltin in vivo on hepatic cytochrome P forms in marine fish. Effects of triphenyltin and other organotins on hepatic monooxygenase system in fish.
Expression of aromatase in the ovary: Down-regulation of mRNA by the ovulatory luteinizing hormone surge. A risk assessment of atrazine use in California: Human health and ecological aspects. Toxic equivalency factors of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in an ovulation model: Validation of the toxic equivalency concept for one aspect of endocrine disruption.
Establishment and characterization of a human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line that expresses multiple pathways of steroid biosynthesis. Factors influencing the development and time of appearance of mammary cancer in the rat in response to estrogen. Effects of environmental antiandrogens on reproductive development in experimental animals. Developmental effects of an environmental antiandrogen: The fungicide vinclozolin alters sex differentiation of the male rat.
Developmental abnormalities of the gonad and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators from contaminated and control lakes in Florida. In vitro metabolism of chlorotriazines: Characterization of simazine, atrazine and propazine metabolism using liver microsomes from rats treated with various cytochrome P inducers.
Atrazine-induced hermaphroditism at 0. Hermaphroditic, demasculinized frogs after exposure to the herbicide atrazine at low ecologically relevant doses. Plasma concentrations of estradiol and testosterone, gonadal aromatase activity and ultrastructure of the testis in Xenopus laevis exposed to estradiol or atrazine.
Dioxin perturbs, in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, steroid secretion, and induces apoptosis of human luteinized granulosa cells. Co-culture of primary human mammary fibroblasts and MCF-7 cells as an in vitro breast cancer model. Inhibition of aromatase activity by methyl sulfonyl PCB metabolites in primary culture of human mammary fibroblasts. A comparison of human HR and rat R2C cell lines as in vitro screening tools for effects on aromatase.
Assessment of the effects of chemicals on the expression of ten steroidogenic genes in the HR cell line using real-time PCR.
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Oxytocin Vasopressin. Thyroid hormones T 3 T 4 Calcitonin Thyroid axis. Testosterone AMH Inhibin. Glucagon Insulin Amylin Somatostatin Pancreatic polypeptide. Gastrin Ghrelin. Enteroglucagon Peptide YY. Leptin Adiponectin Resistin. Endogenous steroids. Nuclear receptor modulators. Agonists: Arachidonic acid metabolites e. See here instead. Authority control NDL : Categories : Steroid hormones Steroids. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.