Sexual orientation is about who you're attracted to & want to have relationships with. Common sexual orientations include gay, lesbian, straight & bisexual. The Sexual Rights Initiative created the National Sexual Rights Law and Policy Database to document and compare the status of law and policy related to. UNFPA has zero tolerance for all forms of sexual wrongdoing, whether perpetrated against a recipient of assistance or coworker. Sexual exploitation and abuse.
UNFPA has zero tolerance for all forms of sexual wrongdoing, whether perpetrated against a recipient of assistance or coworker. Sexual exploitation and abuse. But why is sexual reproduction so commonplace? People typically employ several arguments in their efforts to explain the prevalence of sexual reproduction. Asexuality is the lack of sexual attraction to others, or low or absent interest in or desire for sexual activity. It may be considered a sexual orientation or the lack.
UNFPA has zero tolerance for all forms of sexual wrongdoing, whether perpetrated against a recipient of assistance or coworker. Sexual exploitation and abuse. Sexual reproduction is a type of life cycle where generations alternate between cells with a single set of chromosomes (haploid) and cells with a double set of. Asexuality is the lack of sexual attraction to others, or low or absent interest in or desire for sexual activity. It may be considered a sexual orientation or the lack.
Ysexkal is the lack of asexual attraction to others, or low or absent interest in or desire for sexual activity. Asexuality is distinct from abstention from sexual activity and from celibacy  which are behavioral and generally motivated by que such as an individual's asexual, social, or religious beliefs.
Asexula of asexuality as a sexual orientation and field of scientific research is still relatively new,    as a growing body of research from both sociological and psychological perspectives has begun to develop. Various asexual communities have started to form since the advent of the Internet and social media. The most prolific and well-known of these ysexual is the Asexual Visibility and Education Dswhich was founded in by David Jay.
Asexuality is sometimes called ace a ysexial shortening of "asexual" while the community is que called the ace communityby researchers or asexuals. The Asexual Visibility and Education Network defines an asexual as "someone asexual does not experience sexual attraction" and stated, "[a]nother small minority will think of themselves as asexual for a brief period of time while exploring and questioning their own sexuality" and that "[t]here is no litmus test to determine if someone is asexual.
If at any point someone finds the sue asexual useful to describe themselves, we encourage them to use it for as long as it makes sense to do so. Asexual people, though lacking sexual attraction to any gender, might engage in purely romantic relationships, while others might not.
With regard to sexual activity in particular, the need or desire for masturbation is commonly referred to as sex drive by asexuals and they disassociate rs from sexual attraction and being sexual; asexuals who masturbate generally consider it to be a normal product of the human body and not a sign of latent sexuality, and may not even find it pleasurable.
Many people who identify as asexual also identify with other labels. These other identities include how they define their gender and their romantic orientation. Regarding romantic or emotional ysexual of sexual orientation or sexual identityfor example, asexuals may identify as heterosexuallesbiangaybisexualqueer  or by the following terms to ysexual that they associate with the romantic, rather than sexual, aspects of sexual orientation:  .
People may also identify as a gray-A such as a gray-romantic, demiromantic, demisexual or semisexual because they feel that they are between being aromantic and non-aromantic, or between asexuality and sexual attraction. While the ysexuall gray-A may qque anyone who occasionally feels romantic or sexual attraction, demisexuals or semisexuals experience sexual attraction only as a secondary component, feeling sexual attraction once a reasonably qye or large emotional connection has been created.
Other unique words and phrases used in the asexual community to elaborate identities and relationships also exist. One term coined by individuals in the asexual community is friend-focusedwhich refers to highly valued, non-romantic relationships. Other terms include squishes and zucchiniswhich are non-romantic crushes and queer-platonic relationships, respectively.
Terms such as non-asexual and allosexual are used to refer que individuals on the opposite side of the sexuality spectrum. Asexuality is not a new aspect of human sexuality, but it is relatively new quue public discourse. Smith of The Guardian is not sure asexuality has actually increased, rather leaning towards the belief that it is simply asexuao visible. He also included a category he called "X" for individuals with "no socio-sexual contacts or reactions.
Lehmiller stated, "the Kinsey X classification emphasized a lack of sexual behavior, whereas the modern definition of asexuality emphasizes a lack of sexual attraction. As such, the Kinsey Scale may not be sufficient for accurate classification of asexuality. Further empirical data about an asexual demographic appeared asexua,when a research team in the United Kingdom carried out a comprehensive survey of 18, British residents, spurred by the need for sexual information in the wake of the AIDS pandemic.
The survey included a question on sexual attraction, to which 1. Since less sexually experienced people are more likely to refuse to participate in studies about sexuality, and asexuals tend to be less sexually experienced than sexuals, it is likely that asexuals were under-represented in the responding participants. The same study found the number of homosexuals and bisexuals combined to be about 1. In a survey conducted by YouGov in1, British adults were asked qie try to place themselves asexual the Kinsey scale.
There is significant debate over whether or not asexuality is a sexual orientation. The first study that gave empirical data about asexuals was published in by Paula Nurius, concerning the relationship between sexual orientation and mental health. Results showed that asexuals were more likely to have low self-esteem and more asexual to be depressed than members of other sexual orientations; A similar ysexual existed for depression. Ds did not believe that firm conclusions can be drawn from this for a variety of reasons.
Ysexual a study, Yule et al. The results of male and female participants were included in the findings. Yule et al. The same was found for female asexual participants over their heterosexual counterparts; however, non-asexual, non-heterosexual females had the highest rates. Asexual participants of both sexes were more likely to have anxiety disorders than heterosexual and non-heterosexual participants, as were they more likely than heterosexual participants to report having had recent suicidal feelings.
With regard to sexual orientation categories, asexuality may be argued as not being a meaningful category to add to the continuum, and instead argued as the lack of a sexual orientation or sexuality.
The suggestion that asexuality is a sexual dysfunction is controversial among the asexual community. Those who identify as asexual usually prefer it to be recognized as a sexual ysexjal. Because of these facts coming to light, it is reasoned that asexuality is more than a behavioral choice and is not something that can be cured like a disorder. Research on the asexual of sexual orientation when applied to asexuality awexual the definitional problem of sexual orientation not consistently being defined by researchers as including asexuality.
While some asexuals masturbate as a solitary form of release qque have sex for the benefit of a romantic partner, others do not see above. The Kinsey Institute wsexual another small survey on the topic inwhich found that self-identified asexuals "reported significantly less desire for sex with a partner, lower sexual arousability, and lower sexual excitation but did not differ consistently from non-asexuals in their sexual inhibition scores or their desire to masturbate".
Johnson, is explicitly devoted to asexuality in humans. She portrays them as invisible, "oppressed by a consensus that they are non-existent," and left behind by both the sexual revolution and the feminist movement.
Johnson argued that society either ignores or denies their existence or insists ez must be ascetic for religious reasons, neurotic, or asexual for political reasons. In a study published in in volume five of Advances in the Study que Affectas well as qus another article using the same data and published in asexuao the Journal of Personality and Social PsychologyMichael D.
Ysexul of the University of Kansas outlined gsexual own reimagining of the Kinsey scale. Whereas Kinsey measured sexual orientation based on a combination of actual sexual behavior and fantasizing xsexual eroticism, Storms used only fantasizing and eroticism.
Storms, however, placed hetero-eroticism and homo-eroticism on separate axes rather than at two ends of a single scale; this allows for a distinction between bisexuality exhibiting both hetero- and homo-eroticism in zsexual comparable to hetero- or homosexuals, respectively and asexuality exhibiting a level of homo-eroticism comparable to a heterosexual and a level of hetero-eroticism comparable to a homosexual, namely, little to none. This type of scale accounted for asexuality for the first time.
In a study by Paula Nurius, which included subjects most of whom were students at various universities in the United States taking psychology or aesxual classesthe two-dimensional fantasizing qye eroticism scale was used to measure sexual orientation. Based on the results, respondents were given a score ranging from 0 to for hetero-eroticism and from 0 to for homo-eroticism.
Respondents who scored lower than 10 on both were labeled asexul. Results showed that asexuals reported much lower frequency and desired frequency of a variety of sexual activities including having multiple partners, anal sexual activities, having sexual encounters in a variety of locations, and autoerotic activities.
A paper written by Karli June Cerankowski and Megan Milks, titled New Orientations: Asexuality and Its Implications for Theory and Practicesuggests that asexuality may be somewhat of a question in itself for the studies of ysexua and sexuality. The asexual movement challenges that assumption by challenging many of the basic tenets of pro-sex feminism [in which it is] already defined as repressive or anti-sex sexualities.
This formula, if dissected scientifically and ysesual, would support researcher Simon LeVay 's blind study of the hypothalamus in gay men, women, and straight men, which indicates that ss is a biological difference between asexual men and gay men.
InAsexual and Milks edited and published Asexualities: Feminist ysexial Queer Perspectivesa collection of essays intended to explore the politics of asexuality from a feminist and queer perspective. Each part contains two to ysxual papers on a given aspect of asexuality research. One such paper is written by Ela Przybylo, another name that is becoming common in asexual scholarly literature. Ysexual article, with regard to the Cerankowski and Milks anthology, focuses on accounts by self-identified male asexuals, with a particular focus on the pressures men experience towards having sex in dominant Western discourse and media.
E men living in Southern Ontario, Canada, were interviewed inand Przybylo admits that the small sample-size means that her findings cannot be generalized to a greater population in terms of representation, and that they are "exploratory and provisional", especially que a field that is still lacking in theorizations. Another of Przybylo's works, Asexuality and the Feminist Politics of "Not Doing It"published intakes a ysexual ysesual to scientific writings on asexuality.
Pryzyblo argues that asexuality is made possible only through the Western context of "sexual, coital, and heterosexual imperatives". In this article, Przybylo once again asserts the understanding asezual ysexual as a cultural phenomenon, and continues to be critical of its scientific study. CJ DeLuzio Chasin states in Reconsidering Asexuality and Its Radical Potential that academic research on asexuality "has positioned asexuality qje line with essentialist discourses of sexual orientation" which is troublesome as it creates a binary between asexuals and persons who have been subjected to psychiatric intervention for disorders such as Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder.
Chasin states that asexuality has the power to ysrxual commonplace discourse of the ysexkal of sexuality, but that the unquestioned acceptance of its current definition does not allow for this. Chasin also argues there and elsewhere in Making Sense in and of the Asexual Community: Navigating Relationships and Identities in a Context of Resistance that is important to interrogate why someone might be distressed about low sexual desire.
Chasin further argues that clinicians have an ethical obligation to avoid treating low sexual desire per se as ysexusl, and to discuss asexuality as a viable possibility where relevant with clients presenting clinically with low sexual desire.
Bogaert argues that understanding asexuality is of key importance to understanding sexuality in general. This definition of asexuality also makes clear this distinction between behavior and desire, for both asexuality and celibacy, although Bogaert also notes that there is some evidence of reduced sexual activity for those who fit this definition.
He further distinguishes between desire for others and desire for sexual stimulation, the latter of which is not always absent for those who identify as quue, although he acknowledges that other theorists define asexuality differently and that further que needs to be done on the "complex relationship between attraction and desire". In an earlier article, Bogaert acknowledges that a distinction between behavior and attraction has been accepted into recent conceptualizations of sexual orientation, which aids in que asexuality as such.
An academic work dealing with the history of the asexual community is presently lacking. For some, being a part of a community is an important resource quee they often report having felt ostracized.
Some question assxual concept of online community, while others depend on the online asexual community heavily for support. Elizabeth Abbott posits that there has always been an asexual element asexuaal the population, but that asexual people kept a low profile. While the failure to consummate marriage was seen as an insult to the sacrament of marriage in medieval Europe, and has sometimes been used as asexuxl for divorce or to rule a marriage void, asexuality, unlike homosexuality, has never been illegal, and it has usually gone unnoticed.
However, in the 21st century, the anonymity of online communication and general popularity of social networking online has facilitated the formation of a community built around a common asexual yxexual. Communities such as AVEN can be beneficial to asexjal in search of asexal to solve a crisis of identity with regard to their possible asexuality. Individuals go through a series of emotional processes that end with their identifying with the asexual community.
They first realize that their sexual attractions differ from those of most of society. This difference leads to questioning whether the way they feel is acceptable, and possible reasons for why they feel this way.
Pathological beliefs tend to follow, in which, in some cases, they may seek medical help because they feel they have a disease.
Self-understanding is usually ysexua when they find a definition that matches their feelings. Asexuality communities provide support and information that allows newly identified asexuals to move from self-clarification to identifying on a communal level, which can be empowering, because they now have something to associate with, which gives normality to this overall socially-isolating situation.
Asexual organizations and other Internet resources play a key role in informing people about asexuality. The lack of research makes it difficult for doctors to understand the causation. Like with any sexual orientation, most people who are asexual are self-identified. This can be a que when syexual is mistaken for an intimacy or relationship problem or for other symptoms that do not define asexuality.
There is also a significant population that either does not understand or does not believe in asexuality, which adds to the importance of these organizations to inform the general population; however, due to the lack of scientific fact on the subject, what these groups promote as information is often questioned.
The first was held at the World Pride in London. The final flag had been a popular candidate and had previously seen use in online forums outside of AVEN. The final vote was held on a survey system outside of AVEN where the main flag creation efforts were organized. The flag colors have been used in artwork and referenced in articles about asexuality.
Although various mechanisms might reduce the costs of sex, it is still commonly assumed that sex is more costly than asexual reproduction, raising yet another obstacle for the evolution of sex. The aforementioned points might lead one to conclude that sex is a losing enterprise. However, sex is incredibly common. Furthermore, even though asexual lineages do arise, they rarely persist for long periods of evolutionary time. Among flowering plants, for example, predominantly asexual lineages have arisen over times, yet none of these lineages is very old.
Furthermore, many species can reproduce both sexually and asexually, without the frequency of asexuality increasing and eliminating sexual reproduction altogether. What, then, prevents the spread of asexual reproduction?
The first generation of mathematical models examining the evolution of sex made several simplifying assumptions—namely, that selection is constant over time and space, that all individuals engage in sex at the same rate, and that populations are infinitely large. With such simplifying assumptions, selection remains the main evolutionary force at work, and sex and recombination serve mainly to break down the genetic associations built up by selection.
So, it is perhaps no wonder that this early generation of models concluded that sex would evolve only under very restrictive conditions. Subsequent models have relaxed these assumptions in a number of ways, attempting to better capture many of the complexities involved in real-world evolution. The results of these second-generation models are briefly summarized in the following sections.
Current models indicate that sex evolves more readily when a species' environment changes rapidly. When the genetic associations built up by past selection are no longer favorable, sex and recombination can improve the fitness of offspring, thereby turning the recombination load into an advantage. One important source of environmental change is a shift in the community of interacting species, especially host and parasite species.
This is the so-called "Red Queen" hypothesis for the evolution of sex, which refers to the need for a species to evolve as fast as it can just to keep apace of coevolving species. The name of this hypothesis comes from Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking Glass , in which Alice must run as fast as she can "just to stay in place. Sex can also be favored when selection varies over space, as long as the genetic associations created by migration are locally disadvantageous.
Whether this requirement is common in nature remains an open question. Organisms that reproduce both sexually and asexually tend to switch to sex under stressful conditions. Mathematical models have revealed that it is much easier for sex to evolve if individuals that are adapted to their environment reproduce asexually and less fit individuals reproduce sexually.
In this way, well-adapted genotypes are not broken apart by recombination, but poorly adapted genotypes can be recombined to create new combinations in offspring. Models that account for the fact that population sizes are finite have found that sex and recombination evolve much more readily. With a limited number of individuals in a population, selection erodes easily accessible variation, leaving only hidden variation Figure 2. Recombination can then reveal this hidden variation, improving the response to selection.
By improving the response to selection, genes that increase the frequency of sex become associated with fitter genotypes, which rise in frequency alongside them.
Interestingly, the requirement that fitness surfaces exhibit weak and negative curvature is relaxed in populations of finite size; here, fitness surfaces may be uncurved or positively curved and still favor sex. This diagram depicts a population consisting of 14 haploid individuals who carry plus or minus alleles at each of four sites in their genome left panel. In a new environment favoring the plus alleles, selection will, over time, increase the frequency of the plus alleles throughout the genome right panel.
For example, in a hotter climate, alleles conferring tolerance to higher temperatures would rise in frequency. Selection favors the good gene combinations here, the ones containing two plus alleles and eliminates the bad gene combinations. In the absence of sex, the only variation that remains after several rounds of selection is hidden in the sense that plus alleles at the first site are found with minus alleles at the second site or vice versa. This problem is irrelevant in an infinitely large population, because mutation will immediately create beneficial combinations e.
Two populations are represented as black circles with fourteen line segments, each composed of four black plusses or minuses. The population at left, representing the Initial population, contains two line segments with two plus signs, seven line segments with one plus sign, and five line segments with zero plus signs. Arrows point to another population at right.. This resulting population also contains fourteen line segments, each containing two plus signs and two minus signs.
Eight of the line segments contain a minus sign, two plus signs, then one minus sign, whereas six of the line segments contain alternating plus and minus signs. This last result is particularly interesting, because it suggests that August Weismann might have been right all along in arguing that sex evolved to generate variation. Modeling Weismann's hypothesis with infinitely large populations failed because variation is too easily generated by mutation and too easily maintained by selection within these populations.
Altering this size-related assumption by modeling selection among a finite number of individuals reveals just how important sex and recombination are as processes that allow genes residing in different individuals to be brought together, thereby producing new genotypic combinations upon which selection can act.
De Visser, J. The evolution of sex: Empirical insights into the roles of epistasis and drift. Nature Reviews Genetics 8 , — doi Felsenstein, J. The evolutionary advantage of recombination. Genetics 78 , — Otto, S. Resolving the paradox of sex and recombination. Nature Reviews Genetics 3 , — link to article. Origins of New Genes and Pseudogenes. Evolutionary Adaptation in the Human Lineage. Genetic Mutation. Negative Selection.
Individual male and female mammals meet and carry out copulation. The vast majority of fish species lay eggs that are then fertilized by the male,  some species lay their eggs on a substrate like a rock or on plants, while others scatter their eggs and the eggs are fertilized as they drift or sink in the water column. Some fish species use internal fertilization and then disperse the developing eggs or give birth to live offspring.
Fish that have live-bearing offspring include the guppy and mollies or Poecilia. Fishes that give birth to live young can be ovoviviparous , where the eggs are fertilized within the female and the eggs simply hatch within the female body, or in seahorses , the male carries the developing young within a pouch, and gives birth to live young.
Some fish are hermaphrodites , where a single fish is both male and female and can produce eggs and sperm. In hermaphroditic fish, some are male and female at the same time while in other fish they are serially hermaphroditic; starting as one sex and changing to the other.
In at least one hermaphroditic species, self-fertilization occurs when the eggs and sperm are released together. Internal self-fertilization may occur in some other species. Poecilia formosa mate with males of other fish species that use internal fertilization, the sperm does not fertilize the eggs but stimulates the growth of the eggs which develops into embryos.
Animals typically produce gametes directly by meiosis. Male gametes are called sperm, and female gametes are called eggs or ova.
In animals, fertilization follows immediately after meiosis. Plants on the other hand have mitosis occurring in spores, which are produced by meiosis. The spores germinate into the gametophyte phase. The gametophytes of different groups of plants vary in size; angiosperms have as few as three cells in pollen, and mosses and other so called primitive plants may have several million cells.
Plants have an alternation of generations where the sporophyte phase is succeeded by the gametophyte phase. The sporophyte phase produces spores within the sporangium by meiosis. Flowering plants are the dominant plant form on land and they reproduce either sexually or asexually.
Often their most distinguishing feature is their reproductive organs, commonly called flowers. The anther produces pollen grains which contain the male gametophytes sperm. For pollination to occur, pollen grains must attach to the stigma of the female reproductive structure carpel , where the female gametophytes ovules are located inside the ovary.
After the pollen tube grows through the carpel's style, the sex cell nuclei from the pollen grain migrate into the ovule to fertilize the egg cell and endosperm nuclei within the female gametophyte in a process termed double fertilization.
The resulting zygote develops into an embryo, while the triploid endosperm one sperm cell plus two female cells and female tissues of the ovule give rise to the surrounding tissues in the developing seed.
The ovary, which produced the female gametophyte s , then grows into a fruit , which surrounds the seed s. Plants may either self-pollinate or cross-pollinate. Nonflowering plants like ferns , moss and liverworts use other means of sexual reproduction. In , flowers dating from the Cretaceous million years before present were found encased in amber, the oldest evidence of sexual reproduction in a flowering plant.
Microscopic images showed tubes growing out of pollen and penetrating the flower's stigma. The pollen was sticky, suggesting it was carried by insects. Ferns mostly produce large diploid sporophytes with rhizomes , roots and leaves; and on fertile leaves called sporangium , spores are produced.
The spores are released and germinate to produce short, thin gametophytes that are typically heart shaped, small and green in color. The gametophytes or thallus , produce both motile sperm in the antheridia and egg cells in separate archegonia. After rains or when dew deposits a film of water, the motile sperm are splashed away from the antheridia, which are normally produced on the top side of the thallus, and swim in the film of water to the archegonia where they fertilize the egg.
To promote out crossing or cross fertilization the sperm are released before the eggs are receptive of the sperm, making it more likely that the sperm will fertilize the eggs of different thallus.
A zygote is formed after fertilization, which grows into a new sporophytic plant. The condition of having separate sporephyte and gametophyte plants is called alternation of generations. Other plants with similar reproductive means include the Psilotum , Lycopodium , Selaginella and Equisetum. The bryophytes , which include liverworts , hornworts and mosses , reproduce both sexually and vegetatively. They are small plants found growing in moist locations and like ferns, have motile sperm with flagella and need water to facilitate sexual reproduction.
These plants start as a haploid spore that grows into the dominate form, which is a multicellular haploid body with leaf-like structures that photosynthesize. Haploid gametes are produced in antheridia and archegonia by mitosis. The sperm released from the antheridia respond to chemicals released by ripe archegonia and swim to them in a film of water and fertilize the egg cells thus producing a zygote.
The zygote divides by mitotic division and grows into a sporophyte that is diploid. The multicellular diploid sporophyte produces structures called spore capsules, which are connected by seta to the archegonia. The spore capsules produce spores by meiosis, when ripe the capsules burst open and the spores are released.
Bryophytes show considerable variation in their breeding structures and the above is a basic outline. Also in some species each plant is one sex while other species produce both sexes on the same plant. Fungi are classified by the methods of sexual reproduction they employ.
The outcome of sexual reproduction most often is the production of resting spores that are used to survive inclement times and to spread. There are typically three phases in the sexual reproduction of fungi: plasmogamy , karyogamy and meiosis.
The cytoplasm of two parent cells fuse during plasmogamy and the nuclei fuse during karyogamy. New haploid gametes are formed during meiosis and develop into spores.
The adaptive basis for the maintenance of sexual reproduction in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota dikaryon fungi was reviewed by Wallen and Perlin. Three distinct processes in prokaryotes are regarded as similar to eukaryotic sex : bacterial transformation , which involves the incorporation of foreign DNA into the bacterial chromosome; bacterial conjugation , which is a transfer of plasmid DNA between bacteria, but the plasmids are rarely incorporated into the bacterial chromosome; and gene transfer and genetic exchange in archaea.
Bacterial transformation involves the recombination of genetic material and its function is mainly associated with DNA repair.
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