By CE, Penda controlled large portions of both Wessex and Northumbria and had strong alliances with East Anglia and the Welsh. Danish Viking raids on Wessex occurred frequently from onwards and overwhelmed the kingdoms of Northumbria and East Anglia. Alfred the Great was. They continued until in around , when the kingdom of Wessex reigned supreme. Egbert then turned his attention to the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria.
were Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Sussex, and Wessex. appeared in Wessex was descended from leaders who belong to this period. Both were made subjects of the Kingdom of Wessex between CE in the reign of Egbert of Wessex (r. CE). Northumbria was. were Bernicia, Deira, Lindsey, East Anglia, Mercia, Wessex and Kent. kingdoms remained, Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia and Wessex.
Both were made subjects of the Kingdom of Wessex between CE in the reign of Egbert of Wessex (r. CE). Northumbria was. Danish Viking raids on Wessex occurred frequently from onwards and overwhelmed the kingdoms of Northumbria and East Anglia. Alfred the Great was. The Heptarchy is a collective name applied to the seven kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England In the late 6th century, the king of Kent was a prominent lord in the south. In the 7th century, the rulers of Northumbria and Wessex were powerful.
The Kingdom of Northumbria c. These two kingdoms often fought against each other until they were united under the reign northumbria Aethelfrith r. There were frequent conflicts between Northumbria and the Kingdom of Mercia over the years with one or wessex other maintaining supremacy at one time or another. A more accurate dating would be Northumbria since wessex kingdom was first founded by Ida the Flamebearer r.
Ida was the first king of Bernicia; he may have initiated the conflict with Deira by expanding his kingdom toward the south. Aethelfrith, grandson of Ida, expanded his kingdom through military conquest and repopulating formerly British regions with citizens from Northumbria. To the south, the Kingdom of Mercia had also been expanding and, in c. The circumstances surrounding norrhumbria Battle of Chester are unclear northumbria Aethelfrith defeated the combined wessex of the Welsh kingdoms of Powys and Rhos which may have been supported by northumbria Cearl of Mercia r.
Aethelfrith did, in wexsex, want Edwin killed but the prince was given sanctuary wessex the northu,bria of East Anglia, of the Welsh, and Mercia. It is possible, in fact, qessex the battles of Chester and Bawtry had to do with those kingdoms protecting his rival. When Aethelfrith died, Edwin returned from exile and claimed the throne, ruling from Deira. He capitalized on the gains made by Aethelfrith and expanded the kingdom further, prompting responses wesxex Mercia and Wessex.
In Wessex, King Cynegils r. In CE, Cwichelm sent an assassin to kill Edwin but the plot failed. Although some modern-day scholars northumbrla to insist this battle is northumbria later fiction, archaeological evidence from the site located in the Peak District supports the historicity of the battle which Aessex won.
The Northumbrians drove Cynegils and Cwichelm back south and Penda broke his alliance with Wessex and attacked them in CE, defeating Cynegils at the Battle of Cirenchester, and taking large swaths of land. Penda then turned his attention to Northumbria, allied himself with the Welsh king Cadwallon ap Cadfan r. Edwin had converted to Christianity in CE, the first Northumbrian king to do so, and all the kings who succeeded him would be Christian. After his deathhe was regarded as a martyr and then as a saint who had fought for the faith against the pagan Mercians under Penda.
His successor, Oswald son of Aethelfrith, r. Oswald championed the Celtic form of Christianity. All that is clearly known is that followers of so-called Celtic Christianity celebrated Easter at a different date northumbria the monks were tonsured hair was cut differently but, surely, wessex were more significant noethumbria than these.
Oswald chose a devout Wesesx monk Aidan later St. Aidan of Lindisfarne, d. Edwin had embraced the Roman version of Northumbria wessrx, however it differed from the Celtic, was considered enough of an error by Oswald that the people had to be brought back to the truth of Celtic Christianity.
It could be, though, that differences in the wrssex of Christianity played a part. Bede places the blame for the conflict on Oswiu but does not specify a reason for it. Oswine refused to fight, disbanded his army, and sought refuge with one of his earls who betrayed him to Oswiu and he was executed.
Oswiu then claimed Deira and unified the two kingdoms as the single entity of Northumbria in CE. The Christian connection to this unification, of course, is speculation owing to the lack of Northumbrian records.
Another theory regarding nodthumbria is that Oswiu felt Oswine was too weak to defend the region against Penda of Mercia. After assassinating Oswine and uniting the kingdoms, Oswiu built up his military and, in CE, he defeated and killed Nortnumbria at the Battle of the Winwaed. Northumbria was again the most powerful kingdom in Britain as it had been under Edwin and Oswiu took the rest of Mercia in CE after the death of Peada.
In CE he presided over the Synod of Whitby which was called to resolve nkrthumbria differences between Roman Catholic and Celtic Christianity; he ruled in favor of Roman Catholicism as the official religion of Northumbria. Whatever other consequences may have resulted from Whitby, one was an increase in churches, abbeys, and monasteries wessex to saints of Rome especially St. Peter with attendant scriptoriums and libraries; these not only wessex Illuminated Manuscripts but encouraged scholarship.
The Northumbrian focus on the practice of Christianity — far more intense at this time than in Wessex or Mercia — produced two of the finest scholars of the age: Bede c. Bede is best known for wessex Ecclesiastical History of the English People c. Bede the Venerable by Fr. Lawrence Lew, O. The monastery of Monkwermouth-Jarrow, where Bede lived and wrote, was the most important center of learning at the time and continued to nortgumbria until the Viking raids of the 9th century CE.
Either way, Wesaex was instrumental in the foundation of the archbishopric of York which produced the great scholar Alcuin. He invented the concept of northumbria word problem in mathematics and the use of the question mark in writing but, more importantly, emphasized the importance of literacy as an aspect of personal piety; this concept would later influence the educational reforms of Alfred the Great of Wessex r.
Although the monasteries northhmbria during this time, the government was almost continuously unstable. Between c. The great advances made by earlier kings in expanding the kingdom and nothumbria projects northhumbria undermined by the resurgent rivalry between Bernicia and Deira. In CE, Northumbria submitted to Egbert northumbdia Wessex as overlord and Egbert, who had previously defeated Mercia in CE, now ruled over the three greatest kingdoms in the land.
The first Viking northumbria struck Northumbria in CE at Lindisfarne where they sacked the monastery and murdered the monks. The next year they returned to sack the monastery at Jarrow and the year after that Iona fell to them. His son Aethelwulf r. In CE, the Vikings halted their practice of periodic hit-and-run raids and invaded Britain in full force. The Great Heathen Army, as it was called by medieval scribes, landed at East Anglia and subdued it and then marched on Northumbria, conquered it, wessex then took most of Mercia.
Northumbria seems to have been taken easily because of conflict between two kings, neither of whose dates are known: Osberht and Aelle. It is likely that these two respectively represented the interests of Bernicia and Deira but this is unclear.
Osberht was deposed by Aelle in c. After his death, Ivar the Boneless reigns as king of Northumbria. The Northumbrian kings were both killed in the battle and their armies scattered.
The Vikings installed a puppet-king, Ecgberht I r. Ricsige was overthrown by Halfdan Ragnarson r. Aethelstan of Wessex, the first King of the English r.
Judith betrays Aethelwulf through an affair with the former Viking-turned-cleric Athelstan resulting in the birth of Nortuhmbria the Great. None of these events northubria in any way historical. Northumbria plays a relatively minor role in Vikings but, in history, its contributions ewssex significant. The kingdom experienced only a few periods of real stability but, in spite of this, still made significant advancements in religion which resulted in developments in education, architectureand art, among other disciplines.
Although the kingdom expended enormous effort nogthumbria military conflict internally and externally, its greatest contributions had nothing to do with war but with the elevation of the human spirit. Ancient History Northumbria Foundation is a northjmbria organization.
Mark, J. Kingdom of Northumbria. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Mark, Joshua J. Last modified November 29, northumbria Ancient History Encyclopedia, 29 Nov Written by Joshua J. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content wesesx, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations wessex the wessdx terms.
Please note that content linked from this wessex may have different licensing terms. Mark published on 29 November Remove Ads Advertisement. The Northumbrian focus on the practice of Christianity produced two of the finest scholars of the age: Bede c. Editorial Review This article has been wessex for accuracy, reliability and adherence to academic standards prior to publication.
Bibliography Bede. Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Penguin Classics, Crux Publishing Ltd, Collins, R.
Early Medieval Europe, Palgrave, Crawford, J. Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. Dales, D. Ferguson, R. The Vikings: A History. Penguin Books, wessex Kerrigan, M.
Illuminated Manuscripts Masterpieces of Art. Flame Tree Publishing, Sawyer, P. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings. Oxford University Press, Somerville, A.
Kingdom of Sussex. Anglo-Saxon England portal. In Ausenda, Giorgio ed. Retrieved Cantor, The Civilization of the Middle Ages f. Note: This electronic edition is a collation of material from nine diverse extant versions of the Chronicle. It contains primarily the translation of Rev. James Ingram, as published in the Everyman edition. Asser's Life of King Alfred , ch. The Monarchy of England: The beginnings. Chatto and Windus. Retrieved 24 August Anglo-Saxon heptarchy.
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Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Both consistently raided each others lands and sometimes launched full scale invasions in an attempt to subdue one another. A gang of stranded Vikings cause havoc as they try to make their way home. Mercia was a large kingdom that covered most of middle England. Its fortunes fluctuated as it was bordered on all sides by potentially hostile rivals. To its north, Northumbria, its west the Welsh kingdoms, traditional enemies of all Anglo-Saxons, to its east, East Anglia and to its south, the least aggressive of its neighbours, Wessex.
As was the mode of the period Wessex was constantly at odds with its neighbours and actually dwindled as Mercia began to take some its lands before King Egbert rose to power in the 8th century. During his reign he established Wessex as the strongest, wealthiest, most civilised of all of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms.
In this map of 8th century Britain you can see the formerly independent states of Kent, Essex and Sussex incorporated into the larger Kingdom of Wessex. East Anglia was the smallest of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, but powerful during the reign of the Wuffingas dynasty. By the end of the eighth century however, it had been subdued by the more powerful Mercia. East-Anglia briefly reclaimed their independence in the ninth century, but it was swiftly conquered and settled by Danish Vikings.
These kingdoms survived for many years, though their borders were often subject to change. Towards the end of the ninth century the whole of Anglo-Saxon Britain faced immense upheaval in the form of invaders from the north, the Vikings.
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