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Three social outcasts horses live near the seaside interact with each other in increasingly disturbing ways. The trio of characters sex a woman who has killed her sister, a man who and necrophilia, and a female amnesiac. The first woman woman in sadistic pursuits horses as capturing young women at the beach to force them to engage in sexual activities, woman copulation with a horse and a dog.
The sadistic woman is applying make-up to her face while looking into the mirror of a compact. As the sounds of a young girl's screams become more audible, the woman tilts the mirror so that her face is looking directly into the and. Sunglasses prevent the audience from fully understanding how it is to interpret the woman's gaze.
The trio of characters are a woman who has killed her sister, a man who enjoys necrophilia, and a female amnesiac. The first woman engages in sadistic pursuits such as capturing young women at the beach to force them to engage in sexual activities, including copulation with a horse and a dog. The sadistic woman is applying make-up to her face while looking into the mirror of a compact.
As the sounds of a young girl's screams become more audible, the woman tilts the mirror so that her face is looking directly into the audience. Sunglasses prevent the audience from fully understanding how it is to interpret the woman's gaze.
Ludek Bartos, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Oct 2; Accepted Apr This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Abstract We propose that the anthropomorphic application of gender stereotypes to animals influences human-animal interactions and human expectations, often with negative consequences for female animals.
Introduction Historically, horses have been used in war, agriculture, and transport [ 1 ] but more recently horse-riding has transitioned to a sporting and leisure activity with an associated shift in attitudes toward horses as companion animals [ 2 , 3 ]. Beliefs about perceived temperament characteristics of horses based on whether they are mares, geldings or stallions Beliefs about the perceived suitability of mares, geldings and stallions for different equestrian pursuits.
Results Participants One thousand two hundred and thirty-three people were surveyed. Open in a separate window. Fig 1. Respondent rider experience. Values in parentheses are row percentages. Horse allocation Respondents were asked to assign a gelding, stallion or mare to the man, woman, boy or girl, leaving one rider with no horse assigned. Table 2 Horse allocation odds ratio estimates for geldings, stallions and mares. Fig 2. Horse allocation. Fig 3.
Allocation considerations. Horse temperament descriptors Respondents were required to assign one adjective of a dichotomour pair as an indicative attribute of gelding, stallion and mare. Fig 4. Positive and negative descriptors assigned to geldings, stallions and mares.
Table 3 Odds ratio estimates for horse descriptor allocation. Horse choice by discipline Respondents were then asked which horses would be most likely to be seen competing in Dressage and show-jumping and, when given the choice of a gelding, stallion or mare, which horse the respondent would chose for trail-riding see Fig 5.
Fig 5. Horse choice by discipline. Fig 6. The figure shows discipline choice by rider experience level. Discussion Our results suggest that participants in this study, who were mainly female see Table 1 , hold preconceived ideas about horse temperament and suitability based on the sex of the horse and the age and gender of the rider.
Conclusions Gender, behavior and sex stereotyping are prevalent in the equestrian industries. Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank the participants, members of the International Society for Equitation Science and the moderators of Cyberhorse , Horseyard and Bush Telegraph. Funding Statement The authors received no specific funding for this work. References 1. Endenburg N. Perceptions and attitudes towards horses in European societies.
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Experimental tests to assess emotionality in horses. Behavioural Processes. Wolff A, Hausberger M. Learning and memorisation of two different tasks in horses: the effects of age, sex and sire. Duberstein K, Gilkeson J. Determination of sex differences in personality and trainability of yearling horses utilizing a handler questionnaire.
A preliminary study of the effects of handling type on horses' emotional reactivity and the human-horse relationship vol 82, pg , Behavioural and physiological responses of horses to initial training: the comparison between pastured versus stalled horses. Physiological stress responses and horse rider interactions in horses ridden by male and female riders. Comparative Exercise Physiology. Diversity in horse enthusiasts with respect to horse welfare: An explorative study. Apparatus use in popular equestrian disciplines in Australia.
Birke L, Brandt K. Women's Studies International Forum. Temperament factors such as emotionality and fearfulness have been correlated with impaired learning in some studies [ 23 , 24 ], but there are few reported data on how horse sex may affect the prevalence of such traits in domestic horses [ 25 , 26 ]. Wolff et al. Sex differences in learning and behavior have been reported in young horses but learning tasks and therefore results vary. Yearling fillies appeared to learn at an accelerated rate during early training compared to male horses during two learning tests [ 29 ].
That said, a later study revealed that yearling fillies were reported by their student handlers as being more anxious, aggressive and reactive than geldings during a basic handling program but achieved similar training outcomes at the conclusion of the program [ 30 ].
When learning and training outcomes are assessed on the basis of the achievement of training milestones, sex differences are not reported for example [ 26 , 31 — 33 ].
While convention dictates that younger riders should be mounted on more experienced horses, due to the presupposition that such horses are safer, due to having been exposed to more potentially aversive stimuli, and having more established responses to correct rider cues, there is an absence of scientific evidence to confirm if mares, gelding or stallions are better suited to riders of a given age or gender.
In a preliminary study, Ille et al [ 34 ] found no differences in stress responses between horses ridden by male or female riders, suggesting perhaps that the gender of the rider may not matter to the horse.
Previous studies that have explored a range of equestrian topics by surveying amateur riders have predominantly included women as respondents chiefly because there are more female riders at amateur level [ 35 , 36 ]. However, in equestrian events at the professional level, there are more male riders [ 37 ] and in amateur and professional rodeo, more men than women participate in competitive rodeo activities [ 38 ].
The aim of the current study was to determine whether gender of a rider plays a role in ideas and beliefs about the temperaments and ridden behavior of mares, geldings and stallions. The stud is known for its reliable horses. The following four riders arrive for a trail ride without a booking. There are only three horses available , so one person will miss out. Respondents were asked the following question:. We were also interested in the terms that the participants associated with mares, geldings and stallions.
Lastly, demographic information invited respondents to indicate their gender and age in years. Forums included Cyberhorse www. In addition, twenty-seven national breed associations were also emailed to request the participation of members. The survey was also spread through social media channels e.
Facebook and participants were asked to encourage others to take part and recruit a large variety of people, both with and without horse-riding and handling experience. The survey opened on the 1st March and closed on the 1st June A de-identified participant code was included as a random effect to account for multiple observations per participant.
Similar to above, the de-identified participant codes were included as a random effect to account for clustering. The final section of the survey asked respondents to choose a gelding, stallion or mare for a variety of riding disciplines.
Multinomial logistic regression analyses using the Logistic procedure were conducted to evaluate the effect of experience explanatory variable for nominating stallions, geldings and mares for trail ride, show-jumping and dressage outcome variables. One thousand two hundred and thirty-three people were surveyed. Riders with at least 8 years Values in parentheses are row percentages. Respondents were asked to assign a gelding, stallion or mare to the man, woman, boy or girl, leaving one rider with no horse assigned.
More than half of the respondents allocated the gelding to the girl. The girl had 2. The decision was the clearest when it came to deployment or otherwise of the stallion, with the adults being allocated that horse by almost all respondents and the man being given the stallion more often than the woman see Fig 2. Neither of the children was allocated the stallion to ride, other than by a handful of respondents see Fig 2.
The man was not allocated a horse twice as often as the woman and the girl and the boy was not allocated a horse most frequently. For selection of a rider for the stallion, the man had times the odds of being selected over the boy and the woman 72 times the odds of being selected over the boy Table 2. Human gender had a significant influence on responses when participants allocated the mare. Both the girl and the woman had twice the odds of being allocated the mare over the boy or the man Table 2.
Logistic regression analyses indicated that respondents were about twice as likely to give importance to age over strength, with age having 2. Respondents were required to assign one adjective of a dichotomour pair as an indicative attribute of gelding, stallion and mare. The results are presented in Fig 4.
The respondents considered stallions to be Trainable with Good attitudes but, at the same time, Bossy and Difficult. Mares scored highly as Safe and Trainable , but respondents were less sure about assigning them attributes such as Easy-going , Predictable or Reliable.
Stallions received the least positive attributes. Respondents were then asked which horses would be most likely to be seen competing in Dressage and show-jumping and, when given the choice of a gelding, stallion or mare, which horse the respondent would chose for trail-riding see Fig 5. Geldings were preferred over mares across all disciplines. Stallions and geldings were nominated as equally suitable for dressage by Most of the respondents, Compared to stallions, geldings were about eight times odds ratio: 7.
On the other hand, both geldings and mares were less likely than stallions to be nominated for dressage than for show jumping odds ratio gelding vs. Respondents with more riding experience were more likely to expect to see a stallion in the dressage arena and riders of all experience levels chose a gelding for trail-riding purposes see Fig 6.
The figure shows discipline choice by rider experience level. Experienced riders were significantly more likely to expect to see a stallion competing in the dressage arena compared to a gelding odds ratio: 1. For trail-ride, experienced riders were more likely to expect to see a stallion odds ratio: 1.
Our results suggest that participants in this study, who were mainly female see Table 1 , hold preconceived ideas about horse temperament and suitability based on the sex of the horse and the age and gender of the rider. The large proportion of female respondents in this study accurately reflects the gender distribution of riders in Australia, as found in many other studies [ 41 — 44 ]. Horse-rider allocation decisions must have been made based on rider gender, age and horse sex because the questionnaire described each horse as being suitable for any of the riders.
It is worth noting that several respondents objected to being forced to decide based on the limited information provided. Predictably, the stallion was almost always allocated to an adult, and preferentially, the man.
The gelding was most often allocated to a child, with the girl being assigned the gelding more often than the boy and the mare more likely to be assigned to the woman or the girl. The most unexpected finding in this section of the survey was that the boy was not allocated a horse to ride by almost half of the respondents. Preference for female riders appears to extend to the adults, with the man failing to be allocated a ride twice as often as either the girl or the woman.
Among Australian children, girls participate in equestrian sports at substantially higher rates than boys [ 43 ]. The selection of the female rider instead of the man may reflect the dominance of women in horse-riding, its identification with women and the ways in which women privilege the transfer of horse-riding skills from one generation of women to the next.
It may also result from anecdotal beliefs that females are better equipped to handle horses and particularly female horses, on account of gender attributes such as empathy, risk-aversion, altruism and patience which have been identified in female gender stereotypes in multiple countries across varying economic situations and activities [ 46 — 48 ]. Conversely, this result may reflect beliefs that young males have less impulse control and are more inclined to engage in sensation-seeking behavior [ 49 ] which could place both the boy and the horse at risk of harm.
While the data do not tell us which of these factors if any play a role in the decision, it is clear that there is a consistency of belief among the current respondents about the girl having the opportunity to ride the horse before the boy.
Further stereotypes and bias were encountered in the current study when respondents were invited to choose between dichotomous adjectives to characterize mares, geldings and stallions. The results for geldings were clear and they were positively classified in each of the nine categories by almost all respondents. Positive and negative attributes were mostly evenly spread for mares, with Bossy and Bad being the only negative factors significantly attributed to them.
Stallions scored very highly on Trainability , but at the same time were considered Difficult , Bossy and Dangerous. These results suggest that female participants enter the horse-human dyad with specific ideas based on the sex of the horse. Similar findings were reported when these same participants provided short text answers concerning their horse choice for particular disciplines [ 40 ].
We could also speculate that this set of ideas is also being transmitted from woman to girl riders and is part and parcel of the culture of horse-riding that sees horse-riding as a sport for girls and women, rather than for men and boys.
But just how accurate is this set of ideas that is being transmitted? Given that most studies of equine learning and temperament do not report sex influences on horse temperament, trainability or learning ability, including between geldings and stallions or mares and stallions, the reason respondents assigned the term Bossy to mares and stallions but not geldings appears to reside in beliefs and is yet to be explored experimentally. While little research has yet been undertaken investigating the role that sex hormones play in riding and competing with stallions and mares, there is anecdotal evidence that stallions can become difficult to control, notably in the presence of mares in oestrus.
Owner gender and animal sex are reported to influence the interpretations of companion cat and dog behavior, including the behavior of de-sexed animals [ 53 , 54 ]. Indeed, in male dogs this is an area of scientific enquiry that continues to yield surprising results with desexing appearing to exacerbate many behaviors that were thought to be ameliorated by it [ 55 ].
Assuming the horse is behaving in a particular way based on its sex alone may lead riders, trainers and handlers to erroneous conclusions about horse behavior and a consequent failure to address the etiology of unwanted behavior. Riders are in a position to exert a significant influence over factors that affect horse behavior such as their individual riding skills, equipment use and the physical health of the horse [ 50 , 52 , 56 ].
If the behavior of mares and stallions is interpreted as arising from gendered beliefs, rather than other causes, they may be at risk of having stress or pain-related behaviors ignored because of this bias.
The attribute Bossy , which the current participants used to characterize both mares and stallions, is of concern. The concepts of leadership and dominance are still commonly applied in horse training contexts and may encourage or justify the application of punishment [ 57 — 59 ]. Especially prevalent in Natural Horsemanship NH training philosophies, the dominance hierarchy view of human-horse interactions places the trainer as a herd leader with the horse required to be a submissive participant [ 60 ].
Under such conditions the Bossy horse is at risk of having any undesirable behavior interpreted as a lack of respect or as a hierarchical challenge rather than fear, pain or confusion. Such an interpretation can lead directly to positive punishment of the unwanted behavior rather than diagnosis of its cause. The combination of bias and stereotyping will shape relationships with horses and likely have a detrimental effect on welfare if underlying pathologies or training failures are not addressed [ 50 , 62 ].
A limitation of the current study is that respondents were required to choose between attributes which were selected by the authors. As such, respondents could not indicate if they did not believe that either attribute in each pair accurately reflected an equine sex-based attribute.