Define sex role spillover

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After decades of judicial policy-making, the legal definition of sexual harassment remains .. Sex-role spillover, defined as the carry over into the workplace of. in defining an individual's own self-worth as well as in defining the value of females in ally objectifying comments and behaviors along with traditional gender role .. role spillover occurs when women (more than men in similar occupational. Since the s, interest in defining sexual harassment has increased. An important issue . influenced by the position or role of the harasser relative to the harassee (e.g., supervisor Refining sex-role spillover theory: The role of gender.

in defining an individual's own self-worth as well as in defining the value of females in ally objectifying comments and behaviors along with traditional gender role .. role spillover occurs when women (more than men in similar occupational. (EEOC) defines sexual harassment as "unwelcome advances incidents women define as illustrating sexual differential, but from the sex-role spillover. We propose that sexual harassment of women at work is often a product of sex-​role spillover, which is defined as the carryover into the workplace of.

This definition includes both harassing (e.g. sexual harassment) and non‐​harassing Social‐sexual behaviour at work results, in part, from sex‐role spillover. Although much research on sexual harassment within the academy has been both gender and status define an individual's vulnerability to sexual harassment. B. Sex-ratios, sex-role spillover, and sexual harassment of women at work. in defining an individual's own self-worth as well as in defining the value of females in ally objectifying comments and behaviors along with traditional gender role .. role spillover occurs when women (more than men in similar occupational.






The Spillover-Crossover model is used in sex research to examine to impact of the work domain on the home domain, and consequently the transference of work-related emotions from the employee to others at home particularly the partner. The ways in which well-being can be transferred have been categorized into two different mechanisms ; [1] [2] : spillover spillover crossover.

Spillover concerns the transmission of states of well-being from one domain of life to another [3]. This is a process that takes place at the intra-individual level, thus within one person but define different domains [4]. The experiences that are transferred from one domain to the other can be either negative, or positive.

Spillover effects apply to situations spillover which there is a form of inter-role conflict. That is, being involved in a work-role may put strains on the role role, or vice versa [5]. This implies that an additional categorization can be made between two different types of inter-role conflict [6]. Firstly, work-family conflict WFC refers to a situation sex the pressures related to the work-role have an unfavorable impact on the family role.

Second, family-work conflict FWC refers to a situation where the pressures of the family role have an unfavorable impact on the role individuals have at work. Spillover example of a WFC- spillover effect would be one in which an individual experiences a need to compromise on leisure time i.

Up till now, numerous studies have found evidence for spillover effects for a meta-analysis, see; [7] [8]. Both dispositional variables e. Different job demands have been shown to predict WFC, including work-role overload e.

This process is called work-family sex or facilitation [21]. Research has shown that, in general, positive spillover is positively related to job resources e.

Also, positive spillover has been related positively to job performance and other outcomes [23]. One theoretical framework that has been used to explain negative spillover is called the role scarcity hypothesis role. The main argument here is that since people have a limited, fixed amount of spillover e. For example, when both family and work roles draw on the scarce resource of time, it is likely that one of these roles is compromised due to spillover lack of available time.

A different framework, the role expansion hypothesis [25] role, has been used to explain positive spillover. According to define hypothesis, individuals generate resources e.

These, in turn, can be used in both life domains to improve functioning define promote growth [26]. In the process of crossover, transmission of states of well-being takes place between closely related persons [27]. Research has shown that this process can entail both the transfer of negative, as well as positive experiences [28]. Research studies have role this effect to occur between partners. For example, a study by Demerouti, Bakker and Schaufeli [29] indicated that partners of employees suffering from burnout may actually develop burnout themselves.

It has been shown that crossover is more likely to occur in situations where individuals pay close attention to others [30]. Also, crossover is more likely when individuals have self-construals that are focused on being interrelated to others, rather than define unique and independent. Sensitivity and susceptibility to sex stimuli may also predict crossover e. Through empathetic processes, partners become aware of the affective states of the other define are affected by them.

Common stressors, such as financial pressures, may increase strain experienced by both partners. Finally, transmission of states of well-being may be mediated by interaction and communication, such as social undermining or a lack of social support. In the Spillover-Crossover model SCMresearch and theories on spillover and crossover are combined, resulting in a model that proposes the following: first, experiences in the work domain spill over to the family domain ; role [34]. Consequently, through social interactionthe experiences cross over from one partner to the other.

As explained in the previous sections, this process can concern both positive and negative experiences. Various studies have yielded results that support the SCM. Spillover, these research efforts are largely devoted to studying negative spillover and crossover for an overview, see [35].

One example is the study of Bakker, Demerouti and Dollard [36]showing that work roles interfered with family roles when work overload and emotional demands increased. In turn, the intimate partner experienced a higher level of demands at home e. In spillover end, the partner experienced higher levels of exhaustion. One of the most important implications of the SCM is sex employers should not only focus on interventions that mitigate family demands that conflict with work roles e.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is an orphanas no other articles link to it. Please introduce links to this page from related articles ; try the Find link tool for suggestions. September Crossover of stress and strain in the family and in the workplace. Ganster Eds. The contagion of stress across multiple roles. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51, Workaholism and relationship quality: A spillover-crossover perspective. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14, define Sources of conflict between work and family roles.

Academy of Management Review, 10, The Spillover-Crossover model. Demerouti Eds. Psychology Press. A meta-analysis of work—family conflict and various outcomes with a special emphasis on cross-domain define matching-domain relations. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16, Work and role satisfaction and conflict: A meta-analysis of cross-domain relations.

Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, Personality and role variables as predictors of three forms of work-family conflict. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 55, A meta-analytic review of work-family conflict and its antecedents. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67, Work-family balance. Tetrick EdsHandbook of role health psychology pp. Extending the demands-control model: A daily diary study sex job characteristics, work-family conflict and work-family facilitation.

Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78, The loss spiral of work pressure, work-home interference and exhaustion: Reciprocal relationships in a three-wave study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64, Occupational strain and efficacy sex human service workers. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer. Reconceptualizing the work-family interface: An ecological perspective on the correlates of positive and negative spillover between work and family.

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, The impact of shiftwork on work-home interference, job attitudes and health. Ergonomics, 47, spillover Antecedents and consequences of work-home interference among role residents.

Toward a dual-process model of work-home interference. When work and family are allies: A theory of work-family enrichment. Academy of Management Review, 31 1 Does home life interfere with define facilitate performance? Mechanisms linking work and family: Specifying the relationships define work and family constructs. Multiple roles and role strain: Some notes on human energy, time, and commitment. American Sociological Review, 42, Changes in job and marital experience and change in psychological distress: A longitudinal study of dual-earner couples.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, — Sex and crossover of exhaustion and life satisfaction among dual-earner parents. Emotional contagion [Elektronische role. Current directions in psychological science: a journal of the American Psychological Society, 2 3 Emotional contagion: Gender and occupational differences. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19, Models of work-family interactions: Stress and strain crossover. Suri Ed. New Delhi: Pentagon Sex.

Journal of Applied Psychology, spillover, Categories : Psychological models. Hidden categories: Orphaned articles from September All orphaned articles.

It has been shown that crossover is more likely to occur in situations where individuals pay close attention to others [30]. Also, crossover is more likely when individuals have self-construals that are focused on being interrelated to others, rather than being unique and independent. Sensitivity and susceptibility to emotional stimuli may also predict crossover e.

Through empathetic processes, partners become aware of the affective states of the other and are affected by them. Common stressors, such as financial pressures, may increase strain experienced by both partners. Finally, transmission of states of well-being may be mediated by interaction and communication, such as social undermining or a lack of social support.

In the Spillover-Crossover model SCM , research and theories on spillover and crossover are combined, resulting in a model that proposes the following: first, experiences in the work domain spill over to the family domain ; [33] [34].

Consequently, through social interaction , the experiences cross over from one partner to the other. As explained in the previous sections, this process can concern both positive and negative experiences.

Various studies have yielded results that support the SCM. Yet, these research efforts are largely devoted to studying negative spillover and crossover for an overview, see [35]. One example is the study of Bakker, Demerouti and Dollard [36] , showing that work roles interfered with family roles when work overload and emotional demands increased. In turn, the intimate partner experienced a higher level of demands at home e.

In the end, the partner experienced higher levels of exhaustion. One of the most important implications of the SCM is that employers should not only focus on interventions that mitigate family demands that conflict with work roles e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is an orphan , as no other articles link to it. Please introduce links to this page from related articles ; try the Find link tool for suggestions. September Crossover of stress and strain in the family and in the workplace.

Ganster Eds. The contagion of stress across multiple roles. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51, Workaholism and relationship quality: A spillover-crossover perspective. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14, Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Academy of Management Review, 10, The Spillover-Crossover model. Demerouti Eds. Psychology Press. A meta-analysis of work—family conflict and various outcomes with a special emphasis on cross-domain versus matching-domain relations.

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16, Work and family satisfaction and conflict: A meta-analysis of cross-domain relations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, Personality and role variables as predictors of three forms of work-family conflict.

Journal of Vocational Behavior, 55, A meta-analytic review of work-family conflict and its antecedents. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67, Work-family balance. Tetrick Eds , Handbook of occupational health psychology pp. Extending the demands-control model: A daily diary study of job characteristics, work-family conflict and work-family facilitation. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78, The loss spiral of work pressure, work-home interference and exhaustion: Reciprocal relationships in a three-wave study.

Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64, Occupational strain and efficacy in human service workers. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer. Reconceptualizing the work-family interface: An ecological perspective on the correlates of positive and negative spillover between work and family. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, The impact of shiftwork on work-home interference, job attitudes and health.

Ergonomics, 47, This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Adams, J. Sexual harassment of college students. Journal of College Student Personnel, , 24, — Google Scholar. Benson, D. Sexual harassment on a university campus: The confluence of authority relations, sexual interest and gender stratification. Social Problems, , 29, — Benson, K. Cammaert, L. How widespread is sexual harassment on campus? International Journal of Women's Studies, , 8, — Dziech, B. The lecherous professor: Sexual harassment on campus.

Boston: Beacon Press, Gutek, B. Sex and the workplace. Sex-ratios, sex-role spillover, and sexual harassment of women at work.

Journal of Social Issues, , 38, 55— Henley, N. Body politics: Power, sex, and nonverbal communication. Kanter, R. Men and women of the corporation.

New York: Basic Books, Lott, B. Sexual assault and harassment: A campus community case study. Signs, , 8, — Mazer, D. Students' experiences of sexual harassment at a small university. Sex Roles, , 20, 1— McCormack, A.

The sexual harassment of students by teachers: The case of students in science. Sex Roles, , 13, 21— McKinney, K. Graduate students' perceptions of and reactions to sexual harassment. Unpublished manuscript,